[rarediseases.org], After being detected to have jaundice, by his local physician, he was referred to our institute on day 8 for further investigation. Severe phosphate toxicity can result in hypocalcemia, and in various symptoms resulting from low plasma calcium levels. Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be used; if not available, use a level of protection … [homoeopathyclinic.com], Abdominal sonography done on day 2 showed mild hepatomegaly and diffuse gallbladder (GB) wall edema [Figure 2]. A 1% dust was not toxic to cattle. The oral LD 50 in rats is 25 mg/kg, PO, and the dermal LD 50 in rabbits is 59 mg/kg. He observed dark-coloured urine and generalized itching on day 5 after ingestion. Localization is possible with an ultraviolet light source. Türkmen Şamdanci E, Çakir E, Şahin N, Elmali C, Sayin S. Clinical and Pathological Findings on. Initial symptoms were referable to the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, or both. [ijccm.org], Bradycardia with a prolonged PR interval and atrioventricular blocks of various degrees occur as toxicity becomes more severe. We break down 10 strategies to help you gain the upper hand over your mindset and…. Some of these abnormal symptoms following a phosphate-containing enema can be attributed to abnormal mineral ion and electrolyte balance induced by phosphate toxicity. Serology for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus, dengue, Leptospira, and hepatitis was negative. [revistas.unimilitar.edu.co], Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance --- United States, 2002. At the same time, high levels of phosphorus interfere with calcium uptake, which, if coupled with a low calcium diet over a long period, increases the risks of bone density loss, hypertension, and bowel cancer. [symptoma.com], 335 Chapter 22 Medical Education visàvis Medical Practice 346 Chapter 23 Medical Negligence 361 Chapter 24 Consent to and Refusal of Treatment 370 Medical Social Ethical and Legal Implications 376 Chapter 26 Abortion and Delivery 380 Chapter 27 Impotence Phosphate toxicity can occur withoveruse of laxatives or enemas that contain phosphate. [calpoison.org], Diarrhea was not a presenting complaint. It is of moderate toxicity, with a minimum toxic dose of 10 mg/kg in young calves and 25 mg/kg in horses and sheep. [cmijournal.org], Epidemiology In 2007, Californians reported over 700 exposures to OP and carbamate pesticides to the CPCS. Poisoning Symptoms. Water. Phosphate toxicity can promote tumorigenesis. For raising phosphate levels that are too low: Intravenous (IV) products containing sodium phosphate or potassium phosphate have been used. Organophosphates are used as insecticides, medications, and nerve agents. McCarron MM, Gaddis GP, Trotter AT. Dietary phosphorus deficiency is uncommon and often only observed in cases of near-total starvation or in rare inherited disorders involvi… Severe phosphate toxicity can result in hypocalcemia, and in various symptoms resulting from low plasma calcium levels. For the long-term symptoms, however, there are a number of reports that could not find a good correlation between galactose-1-phosphate levels and the long-term symptoms , , , . Your body needs some phosphate to strengthen your bones and teeth, produce energy, and build cell membranes. It has been stated that ingestion of as little as 15 mg of elemental yellow phosphorus may cause symptoms, and 60 mg can be fatal. 1. Arsenic (Ant or Rat Poisons, Weed Killers) Severe nausea, vomiting. Arsenic concentrations in rice roots decreased with increasing external phosphate concentrations. More care should be taken, particularly with sensitive seeds such as beans or peas, and on coarse-textured soil (sand and sandy loam), than is … More detailed symptom information may be found on the symptoms of Developmental toxicity -- Ethylmercuric Phosphate article. There was no evidence of hepatic encephalopathy. The most common cause of phosphate … Treatment depends on how the poisoning occurred. We’ll tell you the causes, symptoms, and treatment, as well as foods you can add to your diet. Moderate phosphate toxicity that takes longer to develop can lead to the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in various tissues, including often fatal cardiovascular calcification. There is no specific method to determine PP, so diagnosis is mainly built based on observed symptoms and direct observation of phosphorus using UV light in the case of skin contact . Do not stop using dexamethasone suddenly, or you could have unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Discover vitamins, supplements, and other natural remedies for perimenopause. Sodium phosphate or potassium phosphate is often used by endurance athletes in order to increase aerobic capacity and athletic performance. [sustainablepulse.com], (common chickweed) will help prevent kidney damage/stress. Both H 2O and citrate soluble P: Kotka PO 4 25% P 2O 5. The…, You don’t have to live in a sci-fi movie to control your mind. The arsenate uptake rate and accumulation corresponded with the As toxicity in rice plants. The major lethal consequence of aluminium phosphide ingestion is profound circulatory collapse, and is reportedly secondary to these toxins generated, which lead due to direct effects on cardiomyocytes, fluid loss, and adrenal gland damage. Santos O, Restrepo JC, Velásquez l, et al. Calcium deficiency may be associated when there is phosphorus deficiency. Take the container that contains trisodium phosphate with you to the hospital, if possible. Causes and Symptoms. [calpoison.org], Arsenic (Ant or Rat Poisons, Weed Killers) Severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, difficulty in swelling, urinary suppression and muscle cramps. Plants exhibited classic P toxicity symptoms of redness in margins of young and old foliage, poor vigour and flowering, and interveinal chlorosis on young foliage. H 2O soluble : (i) SSP 16% P as H 2O ... 4 24% 3. Signs and symptoms of poisoning, first aid, and links to treatment information for this chemical. Flea collars containing dichlorvos may cause skin reactions in some pets. Phosphates reduce the effects of lactic acid build-up in the muscles; they help make oxygen delivery to the muscles more efficient; they are used in the production of Adenosine Triphosphate (the chemical form of energy within cells) and Creatine Phosphate … Visual deficits were the most common presenting symptom and developed eventually in most cases. Symptoms will be treated. [emedicine.medscape.com]. Phosphorus poisoning (PP) presents with different symptoms depending on the kind of exposure. 25/07/2013 EN (English) 5/7 Carcinogenicity : Not classified Reproductive toxicity : Suspected of damaging the unborn child. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov], He continued to have large amounts of vomiting and diarrhea. Phosphate toxicity can occur withoveruse of laxatives or enemas that contain phosphate. What are its complications and related conditions? Toxicity. Symptoms include increased saliva and tear production, diarrhea, vomiting, small pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and confusion. The upper half of…, A healthy bladder can hold about 2 cups of urine before it's considered full. Additionally, bone X-rays are performed to rule out any potential bone diseases or maladies. Yilmaz R, Yilmaz E, Ozdemir V, et al. Phosphorus deficiency is rare, but it can lead to some complications. [medicalassessmentonline.com], Later symptoms Jaundice, enlargement of liver, skin eruptions, pulse weak, heart weak and convulsions. [thepoisonreview.com], Multiple episodes of vomiting, abdominal pain, and hematemesis were the complaints on presentation. The CNS toxicity has the distinctive features of delayed onset and progressive clinical course. It is not commonly recognized by most of the medical community and is often misdiagnosed. Localization is possible with an ultraviolet light source   . [ijccm.org], However, the US has now admitted its forces also used white phosphorus rounds to a lesser extent to flush enemy forces out of covered positions, allowing them to be targeted with high explosives. While…, The pelvic region holds major organs under its layers of muscles. In this condition, the chemcial can accumulate in liver and kidney leading to liver failure and to a fatal prognosis, if more than 1 mg/kg have been absorbed. The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Regulatory. Manganese distribution and speciation help to explain the effects of silicate and phosphate on manganese toxicity in four crop species F. Pax C. Blamey1, Brigid A. McKenna1, Cui Li1, Miaomiao Cheng2, Caixian Tang2, Haibo Jiang3, Daryl L. Howard4, David J. Paterson4, Peter Kappen4, Peng Wang5,6, Neal W. Menzies1 and Peter M. Kopittke1 1School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The … [thepoisonreview.com], Mortality rates were 23% for patients who had early symptoms of vomiting or abdominal pain; 73% for those where the first manifestation of intoxication was restlessness, irritability, drowsiness, stupor, or coma; and 47% for patients who had a combination Based on solubility the P fertilizers can be grouped into 4 groups. CDC MMWR [On-line information]. Signs and symptoms of poisoning, first aid, and links to treatment information for this chemical. Direct skin contact with white phosphorus, i.e. The contribution of the phosphate transporters (PHTs) in uptake of arsenate (As 5+) and phosphate (P) is a widely recognized mechanism.Here we investigated how P regulates the uptake of As 5+ and the subsequent effects on growth and relative expression of PHTs. Part B.2007;10:41-80. Osteoporosis. Moderate phosphate toxicity, occurring over a period o fmonths, can result in the deposit of calcium phosphate crystals in various tissues of the body. Low-level intake can lead to accumulation in the feces ("smoking stool syndrome")  . [casereports.in], Signs and Symptoms Muscarinic signs (SLUDGE) salivation, lacrimation, urination, diaphoresis, gastrointestinal upset, emesis and progressing to bronchospasm, bronchorrhea, blurred vision, bradycardia or tachycardia, hypotension, confusion, and shock. In addition to the above medical information, to get a full picture of the possible signs or symptoms of this condition and also possibly the signs and symptoms of its related medical conditions, it may be necessary to examine symptoms that may be caused by: No symptoms for this chemical or chemical group are available. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2 In one study mortality rate was recorded as 50% 3 and, in another study, 48% of those who ingested large doses. This reference will interest physicians involved in environmental medicine and occupational health, as well as graduate students and researchers in the fields of neurophysiology, pharmacology, and the toxicology of pesticides. In addition to diet and dialysis, you’ll probably need medication to help your body remove excess phosphate. In some people with chronic kidney disease, high phosphate levels cause calcium levels in the blood to drop. You may also need dialysis. Partial list of pathological events related to phosphate toxicity as documented in both human and animal studies Summarized from [40,66,67,72,78,79]. [rarediseases.org], Other reported toxic effects include gastrointestinal symptoms, renal failure, arrhythmias, seizures, coma, bone marrow suppression, and cardiovascular collapse. Learn more about what the research says and how to safely use it. Pulmonary edema may be observed a few hours after exposure . Decreased libido. Dry skin conditions can lead to spontaneous phosphorus reignition. "Both patients were sweating, only partially conscious, had mucus in their airways, a rapid pulse, PP has been speculated to be conducive to. [cmijournal.org], Intoxication with phosphorus from the environment is characterized initially by burning of the mouth and throat, stomach and abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and an odor of garlic on the breath. Phase II (1 – 3 days) Quiescent stage with improvement. Harold E. Hoffman, MD, FRCPC, FACOEM. 1981; 18:693-711. High blood pressure can weaken the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to your kidneys. The ureter is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. 1976;235:1343-1344.  Clinical features of acute poisoning with YP have been classically divided into 3 stages Pain medicines will be given. Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disorder in which there is a low level of phosphate in the blood. Before taking this medicine. [calpoison.org], The short term effects of YP intoxication include gastrointestinal symptoms, liver changes, renal failure, arrhythmias, seizures, coma, and cardiovascular collapse. Moderate phosphate toxicity that takes longer to develop can lead to the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in various tissues, including often fatal cardiovascular calcification. Patients typically deteriorate rapidly and enter a coma. [emj.bmj.com], Chapter 9 Starvation and Neglect 173 Chapter 10 Death by Electrocution 175 Chapter 11 Deaths Associated with Surgery Anaesthesia and Blood Transfusion 183 Chapter 12 Custody Related Torture andor Death 191 Medicolegal Considerations and Types 197 Chapter Toxicity. 2 As a result, symptoms of phosphorus toxicity when they do occur are actually symptoms of iron and/or zinc deficiency. [jpharmacol.com], Our patient manifested with hypotension, tachycardia and acute pulmonary edema as a consequence of LV failure. [openanesthesia.org], […] and hypoxemia that may result from coma and convulsions, nicotinic effects on skeletal muscles (weakness and paralysis) and muscarinic effects on the cardiovascular and pulmonary system (bronchospasm, bronchorrhea, aspiration, bradydysrhythmias, or hypotension The absence of a non-invasive biomarker to monitor tissue PL has made it difficult to determine the prevalence and implications of PL in the clinic. If you search the web for symptoms of nutrient toxicities you will often find clear pictures and descriptions for most elements. (More information) 2. After cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and protamine administration, autologous blood is returned to the patient as whole blood. Gastrointestinal. Arsenic concentrations in rice roots decreased with increasing external phosphate concentrations. The normal concentration of sodium in human plasma is 136–145 mM, while levels over 152 mM may result in seizures and death. Taking blood pressure medications like angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers can lower your blood pressure and protect your kidneys. Diet alone probably won’t lower your phosphate levels enough to fix the problem. Treatment consists of proper intake of phosphorus and calcium rich food: Foods Rich In Phosphorus. Flea collars containing dichlorvos may cause skin reactions in some pets. Acute yellow phosphorous poisoning “Smoking stool syndrome”. The most common cause of phosphate … Poor memory; Brittle hair and nails. Other reported toxic effects include gastrointestinal symptoms, renal failure, arrhythmias, Intubation may be necessary in cases of respiratory distress due to laryngospasm, bronchospasm, bronchorrhea, or. Signs and Symptoms of Diethyl phosphate Poisoning: NOTE! The accepted lethal dose of white phosphorus is 1 mg/kg. Arsenic toxicity symptoms can be alleviated by increasing external P concentrations. Phosphoric acid, dimethyl ester Having a high level of phosphate — or phosphorus — in your blood is known as hyperphosphatemia. © 2005-2021 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. A few drugs help reduce the amount of phosphate your intestines absorb from foods you eat. [jpharmacol.com], Early use of intravenous N-acetylcysteine in treatment of acute yellow phosphorus poisoning. A deficiency in calcium or magnesium may lead to excess blood phosphate. 2015; 60(3):648-652. When your kidneys are damaged, your body can’t remove phosphate from your blood quickly enough. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. [jpharmacol.com], Fulminant poisoning results from ingestion of more than 1 to 2 g.  In our patient, 2 h following the ingestion of YP, she complained of nausea and repeated vomiting, for which she admitted to our hospital. [calpoison.org], Other symptoms include breakdown of the hemoglobin of red blood cells (hemolysis), a low level of iron in the red blood cells (anemia), and low blood pressure (hypotension). Be aware that many of these contain however and this toxic heavy metal can be difficult to remove from the soil once it's been added. [news.bbc.co.uk], "Both patients were sweating, only partially conscious, had mucus in their airways, a rapid pulse, flushed skin, and had narrow pupils. Ingestion-caused PP may be countered with a swift gastric lavage procedure to avoid the accumulation of this chemical in the liver. Treating hyperphosphatemia with dietary changes and medication as soon as possible can prevent these complications. [symptoma.com], Overexposure may cause headaches, drowsiness, confusion, seizures, and life-threatening complications. After oral ingestion, 70% of absorbed mineral will show in the liver shortly after intake, 12% will affect the heart, 4% will be recovered in the kidneys. More detailed symptom information may be found on the symptoms of Developmental toxicity -- Lead Phosphate article. While onset of symptoms is often within minutes to hours, some symptoms can take weeks to appear. J Forensic Sci. The arsenate uptake rate and accumulation corresponded with the As toxicity in rice plants. IMMEDIATELY call a physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital even if no symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in the mouth, throat, or chest) develop. Phase I (0 – 24 hours) Gastrointestinal effects: nausea, Mortality rates were 23% for patients who had early symptoms of. Rock dust and rock phosphate are also good sources of phosphorus (rock dust contains a variety of other minerals as well). [jpharmacol.com], On evaluation, the patient had jaundice on the second day of admission. As a result, the interpretation of PL in risk assessment remains uncertain in preclinical and clinical drug development. PP has a mortality rate of 20-50%  . symptoms of poisoning from single and short term exposure to organophosphates. Phosphate is an electrolyte, which is an electrically charged substance that contains the mineral phosphorus. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov], On day 2, she had intractable vomiting with altered level consciousness and irritability. Extra fluid in your body can overwhelm your damaged kidneys. Four cases have suggested an association between oral sodium phosphate and microscopic focal cryptitis . Mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Autologous blood is generally drawn into bags containing heparin or citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) solution to minimize coagulation during storage. Heavy metals are deadly hidden toxins in our food and environment. One way to reduce your risk is by slowing kidney damage. B6 toxicity can cause multiple different symptoms that can vary from person to person. Its accumulation and toxicity mainly show in liver and kidney, sometimes in the heart. Many people with mild hypophosphatemia don’t have symptoms. Problem: Marijuana loves Phosphorus and is unlikely to show signs of toxicity. VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride or Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate) TOXICITY is a very unrecognized but emerging epidemic that can cause widespread neurological damage to the body. After ingestion, toxic features usually develop within a few minutes. Al toxicity is intrinsically linked to the agricultural problem of phosphorus (P)-limitation, which can be explained by the immobilization of P through its chelation with Al3+, reducing the bioavailability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to plants (Raghothama, 1999; Chiou and Lin, 2011). Link to information on toxicity to humans, including carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and acute toxicity. [ijccm.org], There were no bleeding manifestations, jaundice, or other signs of liver failure. Moderate phosphate toxicity, occurring over a period o fmonths, can result in the deposit of calcium phosphate crystals in various tissues of the body. It is of moderate toxicity, with a minimum toxic dose of 10 mg/kg in young calves and 25 mg/kg in horses and sheep. • Phosphate regulating factor klotho can act as a tumor suppressor. These include: Hyperphosphatemia is often a complication of chronic kidney disease. Many of the symptoms of sodium phosphate enema toxicity can cause extreme suffering in your dog. In a case of severe phosphate toxicity documented by ourselves, Proteas were grown on old orchard land showing very elevated soil P availability. [ijccm.org], Experimental treatment with copper sulfate and silver nitrate is speculated to provide limited recovery perspectives after a PP diagnosis. Acute phosphorus intoxication has been a familiar syndrome for many years. PP fatality is highly likely for patients who present with hepatorenal failure and a cardiovascular collapse. Metals detected by ICP/MS in wound tissue of war, Frank M, Schmucker U, Nowotny T, Ekkernkamp A, Hinz P. Not all that glistens is gold: civilian white phosphorus. It is imperative to keep the skin moist to avoid spontaneous phosphorus reignition. Phase I (0 – 24 hours) Gastrointestinal effects: Fulminant poisoning results from ingestion of more than 1 to 2 g.  In our patient, 2 h following the ingestion of YP, she complained of, Arsenic (Ant or Rat Poisons, Weed Killers) Severe, Mortality rates were 23% for patients who had early symptoms of vomiting or. Symptoms will be treated. Patients, who have been exposed to white phosphorus fumes, can show a distinct set of symptoms associated to PP, which are a burning sensation, coughs, shortness of breath, a sore throat and unconsciousness. PP fatality is highly likely for patients who present with hepatorenal failure and a cardiovascular collapse. Clin Toxicol. Overexposure may cause headaches, drowsiness, confusion. Frequent symptoms after ingestion are nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, He continued to have large amounts of vomiting and. Deterioration of mental status and … Symptoms can last for days to weeks. Acute Citrate Toxicity Linked to Excess Citrate-Phosphate-Dextrose Solution in Autologous Blood Transfusion Brian Butala, DO; Marc Rodrigue, DO; Joshua Baisden, MD. Treatment depends on how the poisoning occurred. [books.google.de], In this condition, the chemcial can accumulate in liver and kidney leading to liver failure and to a fatal prognosis, if more than 1 mg/kg have been absorbed. The causes and symptoms of mineral toxicity depend upon the precise mineral in question: Sodium - A rise in sodium concentration within the bloodstream is often toxic. Phosphate toxicity from rectal preparations is well described, but has only once been previously attributed to an oral formulation in the absence of underlying renal or gastrointestinal disease .  Here, we present a case of acute YP poisoning An evaluation of childhood deaths in Turkey due to yellow phosphorus in firecrackers. [labtestsonline.it], Anything that’s stuck to the plant leaves doesn’t get incorporated with the soil, and that does things like prevent mineralization of the glyphosate.” That means the half-life of glyphosate goes up significantly, Spiese says. 1. Abdominal sonography done on day 2 showed mild hepatomegaly and diffuse gallbladder (GB) wall edema [Figure 2]. Oral ingestion of white phosphorus is conducive to the fatal form of PP. Chronic toxicity. [calpoison.org], The safest method of managing poisoning from this highly toxic substance is prevention. Acute phosphate toxicity can provoke hypocalcaemia and associated symptoms including tetany, hypotension and tachycardia. Rickets. Tilmicosin phosphate | C46H83N2O17P | CID 5282522 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. Phosphorus is highly mobile in biological tissues and will be readily absorbed. Frequent symptoms after ingestion are nausea, Physical examination showed mid-sized pupils, minimal crackles in all lung fields, and copious. toxicity symptoms ! Dimethyl hydrogen phosphate. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. Stunted growth. [ijccm.org], pain occurring within 24 hours, with normal laboratory tests. Two of the patients had a history of previous medicine overdose. Phosphorus poisoning (PP) occurs after accidental exposure to white (also synonymously termed yellow) phosphorus. Learn about the most common foot problems for runners, why they occur, how to identify them, and how to treat and prevent them. Increase in skin sensitivity. Thomas P. 813-78-5. Patients typically deteriorate rapidly and enter a coma. In end-stage kidney disease, also known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the kidneys are functioning below 10 percent of their normal function. Immediate aggressive use of atropine may eliminate the need for intubation. • Phosphate transporters are over-expressed on certain tumor cells. Click picture below for more information about phosphorus and your marijuana plant. The toxicity of arsenic in soil and ground water is one of the most important environmental problems particularly in South-East Asia. Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency are: loss of appetite, anxiety, mental confusion, bone pain, brittle bones, stiff joints, irregular breathing, irritability, numbness, general body weakness, changes in body weight, fatigue, exhaustion, anemia, problems with speech, susceptibility to infections, In children, occurring more: slow growth, Take the container that contains trisodium phosphate with you to the hospital, if possible. QT interval prolongation has been reported in severe cases. Dimethylphosphate. What Is Pycnogenol and Why Do People Use It? Aluminium-containing phosphate binders have long been used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. Your doctor can do a blood test to check whether you have high phosphate levels. Phosphate toxicity can occur with overuse of laxatives or enemas that contain phosphate. The oral LD 50 in rats is 25 mg/kg, PO, and the dermal LD 50 in rabbits is 59 mg/kg. 5 Published data recommend that decontamination is started within two to five hours after Overexposure may cause fatigue, headaches, nausea, vomiting, Frequent symptoms after ingestion are nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and. Boron phosphate (BPO4) has low water solubility and slowly releases B, and hence could be safe for seedlings. Arsenic toxicity symptoms can be alleviated by increasing external P concentrations. Protect your kidneys by treating the cause of your kidney disease. If the victim has collapsed or is unconscious, call 911. It is difficult to remove phosphorus from the soil but excess levels can be remediated by using low phosphorus (or phosphorus free) fertilisers until … Acid soluble P : Anhydrious Rock phosphate 16 - 18 % 4. Phosphorus Toxicity. Feed a plant too much nitrogen and it will grow leggy and weak, with dark leaves and long stems, feed it too much boron and you will see yellowing and tissue necrosis. Available online at . Most people get about 800 to 1,200 milligrams (mg) of phosphorus daily from foods like red meat, dairy, chicken, fish, and fortified cereal. [jpharmacol.com], Intubation may be necessary in cases of respiratory distress due to laryngospasm, bronchospasm, bronchorrhea, or seizures. Complications may include seizures, coma, rhabdomyolysis, or softening of the bones.. There are two ureters, one attached to each kidney. Curr Med Issues [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 May 13];15:136-8.